How Do You Treat a Testicular Infection in a Dog?

When the scrotum becomes painful and tender, fine needle aspiration can provide fluid samples for culture and cytology analysis. Furthermore, fine needle aspiration can also provide insight into epididymitis/epididymo-orchitis which involves inflammation of the coiled tube at the back of each testicle that transports sperm.

Orchitis is caused by a bacterial infection invading through the blood and into the testicle, and may appear suddenly (acute) or progress slowly over time (chronic).


Dogs exhibiting swollen testicles should be taken immediately to a veterinarian, who will perform a complete physical examination, palpating their scrotum to check for inflammation or rupture of testicular cyst. They will also do bloodwork to get an overall idea of their overall health status.

Bacteria are one of the primary causes of testicular infections, often entering through cracks in the testicle and making its removal difficult for the body. Antibiotics will likely be prescribed, with some needing to be given orally while others require injection into your dog.

An infection of the epididymis, an elongated cordlike structure located along the backs of testicles, is another leading cause of swollen testicles in dogs. Although commonly misunderstood as orchitis, treatment can differ. Your vet may give your pup antibiotics to combat infection of epididymis as well as sedatives to alleviate pain or discomfort caused by it.

Dogs that suffer from swollen testicles often do so due to tumors. Although most are benign, Sertoli cell tumors and seminomas can produce too much estrogen or testosterone and should be watched out for as these may spread to other organs more easily than their benign counterparts.

Contact Dermatitis and Testicular Torsion are also possible causes for swollen testicles in a dog. An allergic reaction to plants, cleaning products or any substance could trigger contact dermatitis reactions that lead to swelling testicles; similarly if his testicles become caught or bent too far during his activity it’s called Testicular Torsion which could have serious repercussions for their wellbeing.

If the testicle swell is caused by torsion, it’s crucial that a veterinarian addresses its source as soon as possible. This might involve abdominal x-rays, blood work and possibly biopsying the affected testicle for analysis and possible removal if cancerous treatment options have been considered; chemotherapy or radiation might also be considered in such instances. Neutering will often help avoid infertility from damaged germinal cells that produce sperm cells resulting in decreased fertility.

Pain medication

Swollen testicles in male dogs are typically caused by infection; typically either orchitis (inflammation of one or both testicles) or epididymitis (inflammation of the tube that contains sperm). While this condition most often appears in young male dogs, any age can experience it; the key thing is getting your pet seen immediately by a veterinarian to identify what’s causing its swelling and treat it appropriately.

As soon as infection has been confirmed by culture, the first step of treatment should be the administration of antibiotics to the affected testicle. The type of antibiotic will depend on its results; typically clavulanate-amoxicillin, enrofloxacin or trimethoprim-sulfonamide are effective antibiotics; tetracycline or minocycline may also be prescribed; anti-inflammatory medication and steroids may also be required if Brucella infection occurs, while fluid therapy may help sustain tissue perfusion, blood pressure and circulation.

An ultrasound can be helpful when diagnosing orchitis. Your veterinarian can use it to see the infected tissues more clearly and distinguish between orchitis and a scrotal hernia, with further tests including biopsying of your testicle for further clarity on diagnosis.

If the root cause of an orchitis infection is left untreated, the condition can worsen into chronicity, eventually leading to scarring of the testicles and infertility. This is known as immune-mediated orchitis and could stem from bacteria, fungal infections, tick-borne diseases or neoplasia.

Anti-inflammatory medicines like ibuprofen and naproxen may provide some relief, as well as applying cold packs or ice to the scrotum and applying antibiotic ointments topically on the area of inflammation.

An enlarged testicle in a dog is an indicator that something may be amiss and should not be ignored. Seeking medical assistance immediately can prevent the condition from worsening further and ensure treatment can begin as soon as possible. Most animals with orchitis recover without serious long-term effects; however breeding animals with this disease may develop infertility due to fibrosis or immune destruction of testicle tissue.


Testicular swelling may be caused by various infections, including bacteria, fungal, and viral strains. One such common form is orchitis: inflammation in either one or both testicles that may either be acute and symptomatic or chronic and asymptomatic. Epididymitis, an inflammation of the spermatic cord, may occur at times. The spermatic cord contains major blood vessels, nerves, lymph pathways and storage structures known as granulomas that store sperm for storage purposes. Granulomas are composed of connective tissue encasing granulomas filled with sperm. Other conditions that affect testicles include scrotal abscesses, torsion of the spermatic cord, occipital hernia and scrotal hematoma.

Veterinarians will conduct a full examination on any dog showing testicular pain to identify its source. A fine-needle aspiration may be performed on a swollen testicle to obtain fluid and cells to test for bacteria or pathogens; other diagnostic tests include complete blood count, biochemical profile and urinalysis; antibiotics or scrotal support garment may help reduce pain while blood cultures, fungal serology titers or cytology are often employed to confirm infection presence.

Steroids may help treat testicular infections in dogs by suppressing immune cell production that causes inflammation. Prednisone may be given orally or subcutaneously; its dose should be closely monitored as there are possible side effects.

If the testicular infection is due to tumor, it will be necessary to monitor for signs of scrotal hematoma, which occurs when blood oozes into the scrotum from its sources. Scrotum should be checked daily as ruptured hematomas require surgery; should one form, needle drainage of any clots must occur followed by surgery to drain off.

Other symptoms to watch for include squatting instead of standing to urinate, asymmetrical testicular swelling and generalized scrotal enlargement. Furthermore, it’s wise to inspect their premuce regularly for signs of red inflammation which could indicate cancer.


An enlarged testicle could be an indicator of serious medical problems in your dog, so it is recommended that they visit their veterinarian as soon as possible in order to prevent it worsening and leading to other health issues. They will check their condition as well as perform fine-needle aspiration of affected testicle to submit for culture and cytology analysis by laboratory technicians.

Orchitis in dogs is generally treated with antibiotics. The type of antibiotic prescribed depends on its cause; for instance, if your pet has Brucellosis he’ll likely need minocycline or tetracycline; other possible options include clavulanate-amoxicillin, enrofloxacin or trimethoprim-sulfonamide. Intravenous fluid therapy may be needed when dehydrated animals with bacterial orchitis experience shock or blood infection; such therapy ensures proper tissue perfusion while blood pressure regulation while anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs help ease discomfort in these cases.

In general, veterinarians will conduct fine-needle aspiration on swollen testicles to obtain samples of fluid within. A tetanus vaccination may also be recommended to reduce bacteria transfer between testicle.

At times, your veterinarian may advise using an antiseptic ointment on the wound to help reduce pain, redness and swelling in the area. Apply this daily until your wound has completely healed.

Certain breeds of dog may be at increased risk of testicle infections, including those who have had previous hernias or tumors, so these animals should be kept under close veterinary observation.

If your pup is showing signs of extreme discomfort when having their scrotum touched, it’s essential that they see their vet immediately as this could indicate a medical emergency resulting from either scrotal hernia or testicular torsion.

An orchiectomy is one of the most frequently performed surgeries on male canines’ genitalia, although other surgeries will likely need to be conducted due to diseases or conditions affecting scrotum, testes, or epididymides which will be discussed further in future articles.

Lisa Thompson

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