What Are the Side Effects of Heartworm Treatment in Dogs?
Heartworm disease is a potentially lethal illness for dogs if left untreated, necessitating multiple trips to the veterinarian as well as strict exercise restriction at home. Treatment requires multiple trips as well as strict restriction.
Melarsomine is an effective solution, killing adult heartworms with 98% accuracy.
Once a heartworm infection is confirmed, your veterinarian will begin treatment through a series of injections designed to eliminate adult heartworms and their microfilaria. Left untreated, heartworms can damage blood vessels in both lungs and heart resulting in difficulty with oxygen delivery to tissues in body; coughing is one symptom. In advanced cases, dogs with heartworms may present with swelling abdomen or distended chest as a result of fluid build-up caused by blocked blood vessels caused by blockage by heartworms.
Once adult heartworms die, their remains are carried back into the lungs where the immune system begins digesting and breaking them down – this process typically takes weeks or months; during this period of time it is crucial that dogs remain as quiet as possible to avoid further complications; hence cage rest is such an integral component of treatment.
Heartworm medications used to treat disease in dogs often produce severe reactions in some animals, most frequently when administered at high dosage levels or advanced disease stages. If any such reaction arises, stabilization must first take place before starting actual treatment can begin.
Reducing exercise and using supplemental oxygen therapy to assist the dog is also necessary to help the breathing. Worms can cause fluid to collect in their lungs, making breathing difficult for a dog accompanied by coughing. At later stages of heartworm disease, worms can block blood from returning to the heart causing caval syndrome which is life threatening if not removed quickly through surgical removal of worms. Unfortunately most dogs who develop caval syndrome die.
One symptom of heartworm disease that manifests itself at its advanced stages is vomiting. This could be caused by coughing or due to fluid build-up in the lungs; some dogs even vomit blood when infected with heartworms.
Heartworm infection in dogs causes rapid reproduction and growth. They feed off of blood and nutrients taken from their host dog and cause him to experience reduced energy, leading them to feel lethargic and often result in weight loss. Worm shedding also results in diarrhea due to lost fluids from body fluid loss caused by diarrhea caused by excessive fluid loss caused by shed worms.
As adult heartworms die and circulate in the blood stream, their dead bodies float freely until they get caught in narrowing vessels causing pulmonary embolism or blockages that can prove deadly for dogs. To lessen this risk, owners can limit activity levels during and post melarsomine treatment in order to minimize risks and ensure safety for both dog and owner.
Prior to treating adult heartworms, your vet will conduct bloodwork and X-rays. This allows them to assess the damage done by this disease as well as provide insight into how treatment should progress.
Depending on the severity of heartworm infection, veterinarians may prescribe antibiotics, pain relievers, diuretics to remove fluid accumulation in the lungs, and medication that improve heart function. Some dogs with advanced heartworm disease require long-term diuretic therapy as well as medications such as ACE inhibitors or beta blockers as well as low-sodium diets to ensure continued protection.
Your dog must remain under strict restraint during treatment for heartworm disease. Though this may prove challenging if she’s used to being active, resting is absolutely necessary as overexertion accelerates heartworm damage in both their heart and lungs as well as raising their risk for fatal complications like caval syndrome – where blood flow becomes blocked in their chambers leading to collapse and eventual death.
She will receive an oral antibiotic called Doxycycline to kill any microfilariae or larvae growing in her lungs; this step must come prior to beginning any formal treatments.
After 30 days, your pet will undergo another injection of Melarsomine. We require hospitalization so we can closely monitor for side effects and administer painkillers if needed. Your pet will still adhere to rest restrictions including crate rest. They will also receive a heartworm preventative that needs to be administered once every month as this will stop adult worms from emerging and protect her against future heartworm infections.
5. Loss of Appetite
If your dog seems less active and is eating less frequently, this could be an indicator that his or her heartworm infection is worsening. Animals suffering from advanced disease often experience appetite changes as the dead worms start obstructing blood flow to their lungs and disrupting normal metabolic functions.
Untreated heartworm infections can result in pulmonary thromboembolism. This occurs when dead heartworm fragments break off and enter the lungs where they can block blood flow, creating caval or vena cava syndrome – often fatal and identified by symptoms such as coughing, hemoptysis, weakness/lethargy or even sudden appetite loss.
To avoid this scenario, dogs must remain on a monthly heartworm prevention regimen all year round; any missed doses must be administered as soon as possible. Physical exertion also speeds up the rate at which dead heartworms reenter their bloodstreams and travel back towards the lungs, further complicating treatment. To make things easier for everyone involved, exercise should also be restricted severely during treatment to limit further transmission of dead worms into bloodstream and lung tissue.
6. Shortness of Breath
While heartworm treatment kills adult heartworms quickly, there may still be post-treatment complications; many stem from fragments of dead worms released when they die that block blood vessels and cause more problems than expected. Caval Syndrome, which involves sudden cardiovascular collapse and potentially lethal consequences, should be taken very seriously and therefore most heavily infected dogs must be placed into cage rest following treatment. As such, this can reduce their reactivity while giving them time to rest while the corpses of dead heartworms decay. If a dog exhibits serious symptoms such as severe coughing, coughing up blood, labored breathing, swollen belly, weight loss or dark coffee-colored urine then immediate veterinary assistance must be sought immediately.
Reducing post-treatment reactions requires keeping the dog completely sedated, restricting activity during and post treatment and following the prescribed injection schedule (typically 30-day rest period followed by two melarsomine injections 24 hours apart), restricting activity levels during this time and continuing monthly heartworm prevention – most complications should be prevented this way.
Heartworm treatment side effects in dogs vary significantly depending on the severity and extent of lung damage caused by infection, with signs such as coughing, exercise intolerance or failure, labored breathing, blue or purplish discoloration of gums and skin, coughing up blood, fainting and an increase in abdominal fluid accumulation being the hallmarks of an active, outdoor dog having more adult worms present than sedentary indoor ones.
Prior to initiating heartworm treatment for dogs, medications are usually given first in order to stabilize them, with blood work often recommended to assess the extent of damage and identify possible complications of infection that would not otherwise be noticeable.
Once heartworm disease has been managed, treatment with Melarsomine dihydrochloride, an arsenical compound, may begin. Injection into the epaxial muscles usually brings temporary swelling or soreness at injection sites; occasionally an abscess will form there as well.
Heartworm disease is a potentially life-threatening illness, but can be avoided through preventative medication. Infection occurs when mosquitoes bite dogs carrying microfilariae (tiny heartworms). Once in their systems, these microfilariae mature into larvae and are then reinfected back into them when female mosquitoes feed on an infected animal again.
Once adult worms mature, they can spread throughout your dog’s heart and blood vessels, leading to inflammation of his lungs and other organs as well as blockages in his pulmonary arteries resulting in coughing, weakness, loss of appetite and eventually death.
Your veterinarian will administer injections of Melarsomine dihydrochloride to your dog to kill adult heartworms. Over 30 days, starting with one single injection followed by two 24 hour-apart repeat doses 24 hours apart, this medication should do the trick. In addition, your pet will also be prescribed additional drugs designed to reduce inflammation in his/her lungs and kill any infectious bacteria carried by heartworms; its primary side effect being pain at injection site.